Species Profile

Whooping Crane

Scientific Name: Grus americana
Taxonomy Group: Birds
COSEWIC Range: Northwest Territories, Alberta, Saskatchewan, Manitoba
COSEWIC Assessment Date and Status Change: April 2010
COSEWIC Status: Endangered
COSEWIC Status Criteria: B1ab(iii); D1
COSEWIC Reason for Designation: Canada is home to 100% of the naturally-occurring global breeding population of this species. Although never common, its population dipped to only 14 adult birds early in the last century, at which point the species was at the brink of extinction. Conservation efforts in Canada and the U.S. not only rescued the remnant population from extinction, but later resulted in population increases. To help ensure persistence of the species, efforts to establish wild flocks of captive-bred individuals outside Canada have been underway for several decades. Nevertheless, Canada’s breeding population is still very small and is confined to a limited breeding area and only one wintering location. This situation exposes it to catastrophic natural events (e.g. droughts, hurricanes) and a variety of ongoing anthropogenic threats (e.g. loss and degradation of coastal wetland habitats on the wintering grounds, oil spills in coastal areas, and collisions with power lines and structures during migration). Last, because of delayed sexual maturity and a naturally low annual reproductive output, this species has an inherently weak capacity to rebound from pressures that reduce survivorship or reproductive success.
COSEWIC History of Status Designation: Designated Endangered in April 1978. Status re-examined and confirmed in November 2000 and in April 2010.
SARA Status: Schedule 1, Endangered
Date of Listing (yyyy-mm-dd): 2003-06-05

Please note that this information is provided for general information purposes only. For the most up to date and accurate list of species listed under the Species at Risk Act, please see the Justice Laws Website.

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Quick Links: | Photo | Description | Distribution and Population | Habitat | Biology | Threats | Protection | Recovery Initiatives | National Recovery Program | Documents

Image of Whooping Crane

Whooping Crane Photo 1

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Description

The Whooping Crane is approximately 1.5 meters tall, making it the tallest bird in North America. Adults are white with black wing tips, which are only evident when the wings are outstretched. In addition, there are red, black and grey markings on the head and face. The long legs and beak are black or greyish-black. Immature birds have a combination of greyish-white and rusty colouring and lack facial markings. Cranes fully extends their legs and neck in flight.

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Distribution and Population

The current ‘natural’ nesting grounds for this species are entirely within Canada in Wood Buffalo National Park, which straddles the Alberta-Northwest Territories border. At one time the species occupied a much wider breeding range, which extended across much of the central and northern prairies of North America. It was lost from these areas following settlement around the early 1900’s. The Wood Buffalo flock migrates to the Texas Gulf Coast, where they winter in or near the Aransas National Wildlife Refuge. Additional flocks of Whooping Cranes have been established. One wild flock was established in 1975 in southeastern Idaho. It winters in the middle Rio Grande Valley of New Mexico. A non-migratory wild flock was established in 1993 in Florida. According to historical evidence, Whooping Cranes were probably never common, and their numbers probably never exceeded 1 500 individuals. As of 1998-99, the total population of wild Whooping Cranes was 260 individuals, 183 of which were members of the Wood Buffalo National Park/Aransas National Wildlife Refuge flock. This flock has increased by a little more than 35 % over the last ten years and has a population growth of 3.7% per year. Estimates for 2000 indicate that there are a total of 51 nesting pairs of cranes, with 9 pairs having successfully arrived on the wintering grounds with a single young each.

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Habitat

During the breeding season, Whooping Cranes inhabit marshes, bogs, and shallow lakes that are separated by narrow ridges. Trees on these upland ridges are mainly Black Spruce, White Spruce, Tamarack and various willow species with a ground cover that includes Dwarf Birch, Labrador Tea, and Bearberry. Bulrushes, Cattails, sedges, Musk-grass and other wetland and aquatic plants dominate the vegetation in the nesting areas. There has been a significant loss of suitable wetland habitat south of Wood Buffalo National Park since the early 1900’s. When migrating, Whooping Cranes stop along the way to roost and feed in a variety of wetlands and croplands. The wintering habitat consists of estuarine marshes and salt flats. Plants such as Salt Grass, Saltwort, Smooth Cordgrass, Glasswort, and Sea Ox-eye dominate the marshes, and the salt flats are dominated by Gulf Cordgrass.

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Biology

The Whooping Crane migrates from late March to late April. Upon arrival on the breeding grounds, the birds start building nests. Each clutch is usually composed of two eggs, but only one chick normally fledges successfully. Incubation takes 30-35 days and the young begin sustained flights by mid-August. Birds depart for the wintering grounds in mid-September. Whooping Cranes reach maturity at four years of age and breed annually thereafter. Their lifespan is 22-30 years. During the breeding season their diet includes insects, crustaceans, minnows, frogs, snakes, small rodents, seeds and berries. During migration, they feed on waste grains, insects and small rodents. Blue Crabs and clams are the most important food source on the wintering grounds, but they consume Wolfberry and acorns on adjacent uplands.

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Threats

Habitat quality, and subsequently, food resources, are the important factors controling the species’ numbers. The breeding range in Wood Buffalo National Park is very restricted. However, Whooping Cranes appear to be more limited by risks faced during migration and factors affecting their wintering grounds than those affecting their breeding grounds. The concentration of the species in the vicinity of Aransas National Wildlife Refuge, makes it susceptible to catastrophic events (e.g. hurricanes, chemical spills). This critical wintering habitat is particularly at risk because it is subject to heavy boat traffic involved in the transport of petrochemicals, resulting in habitat degradation, contamination and increased possibility of accidental spills.

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Protection

Federal Protection

The Whooping Crane is protected under the federal Species at Risk Act (SARA). More information about SARA, including how it protects individual species, is available in the Species at Risk Act: A Guide.

The Whooping Crane is protected by the federal Migratory Birds Convention Act. Under this Act, it is prohibited to kill, harm, or collect adults, young, and eggs. This species occurs in Wood Buffalo National Park, where it is protected under the Canada National Parks Act. It is also protected by the Saskatchewan and Alberta Wildlife Acts and the Manitoba Endangered Species Act.

Provincial and Territorial Protection

To know if this species is protected by provincial or territorial laws, consult the provinces' and territories' websites.

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Recovery Initiatives

Status of Recovery Planning

Recovery Strategies :

Name Recovery Strategy for the Whooping Crane (Grus americana) in Canada
Status Final posting on SAR registry

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Recovery Progress and Activities

Summary of Progress to Date The recovery of the Whooping Crane is a cooperative effort between Canada and the United States. The naturally occurring population in Wood Buffalo National Park (WBNP) continues to prosper. In 2004, a record 66 chicks hatched from 54 nests, including 20 sets of twins. From these, a record 40 chicks fledged in mid-August, including 5 sets of twins. The excellent production resulted in the WBNP population numbering a record 216 individuals, a population size that they have not been at in over 100 years. As well, several reintroduced flocks of Whooping Cranes exist. A non-migratory wild flock was established in 1993 in Florida, and the eastern migratory flock was formed in 2001 and migrates between Wisconsin and Florida. No individuals remain from the first flock established in 1975 in south-eastern Idaho, wintering in the middle Rio Grande Valley of New Mexico. Summary of Research/Monitoring Activities The Whooping Crane is one of the most well studied species at risk in Canada. Breeding ground surveys in the northern part of WBNP have been conducted annually since 1964. These surveys have been used to gather important ecological information such as the number of breeding pairs, and hatching and fledging success. The cranes? migration route to their wintering grounds in and around the Aransas National Wildlife Refuge in Texas has also been monitored since 1975 in order to identify the flight path and locate important staging areas. The health of wild and captive flocks is monitored for West Nile Virus, Eastern Equine Encephalitis, and Infectious Bursal Disease Virus. Research efforts have been quite varied for the Whooping Crane. From 1996-1999, researchers at WBNP investigated Whooping Crane diet and causes of chick mortality. This project identified food resources available to the cranes on their breeding territories and used radio transmitters and observations to determine the age and cause of death for chicks lost during the breeding season. Other research involves identifying and describing crane breeding habitat, mapping it in a Geographical Information System (GIS), and comparing the extent and suitability of this habitat to similar but currently unoccupied habitat. This mapping, in conjunction with ongoing population viability analysis, is being used to identify critical habitat for the Whooping Crane in Canada. Summary of Recovery Activities Captive breeding and reintroduction has played an important role in the recovery of the Whooping Crane. A captive breeding centre has been in operation at the Calgary Zoo since 1993, and in its first 11 years of operation it produced 20 offspring for release into the wild and for the maintenance of the captive breeding flock. Two additional captive breeding facilities, the International Crane Foundation and the Patuxent Wildlife Research Centre, are located in Wisconsin and Maryland respectively. The Northern Life Museum in Fort Smith, Northwest Territories opened a new exhibit prominently displaying the Whooping Crane named CANUS. CANUS was the name given to the most prolific Whooping Crane ever. CANUS and his offspring have sired approximately 186 chicks in his 38-years in captivity at the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center. Other recovery activities include an ongoing public awareness program in Saskatchewan. URLs http://www.mb.ec.gc.ca/nature/endspecies/whooping/db01s03.en.htmlhttp://www.bringbackthecranes.org/crane-info/recv2004a.htmhttp://www.operationmigration.org/http://endangered.fws.gov/canada/crane.htmhttp://www.whoopingcrane.com

Hinterland Who's Who: Whooping Crane: http://www.hww.ca/hww2.asp?pid=1&cid=7&id=79

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Documents

PLEASE NOTE: Not all COSEWIC reports are currently available on the SARA Public Registry. Most of the reports not yet available are status reports for species assessed by COSEWIC prior to May 2002. Other COSEWIC reports not yet available may include those species assessed as Extinct, Data Deficient or Not at Risk. In the meantime, they are available on request from the COSEWIC Secretariat.

21 record(s) found.

COSEWIC Status Reports

COSEWIC Assessments

  • COSEWIC Assessment Summary and Status Report: Whooping Crane Grus americana (2010-09-03)

    Assessment Summary – April 2010 Common name Whooping Crane Scientific name Grus americana Status Endangered Reason for designation Canada is home to 100% of the naturally occurring global breeding population of this species. Although never common, its population dipped to only 14 adult birds early in the last century, at which point the species was at the brink of extinction. Conservation efforts in Canada and the U.S. not only rescued the remnant population from extinction, but later resulted in population increases. To help ensure persistence of the species, efforts to establish wild flocks of captive-bred individuals outside Canada have been underway for several decades. Nevertheless, Canada’s breeding population is still very small and is confined to a limited breeding area and only one wintering location. This situation exposes it to catastrophic natural events (e.g. droughts, hurricanes) and a variety of ongoing anthropogenic threats (e.g. loss and degradation of coastal wetland habitats on the wintering grounds, oil spills in coastal areas, and collisions with power lines and structures during migration). Last, because of delayed sexual maturity and a naturally low annual reproductive output, the population of this species has an inherently weak capacity to rebound from pressures that reduce survivorship or reproductive success. Occurrence Northwest Territories, Alberta, Saskatchewan, Manitoba Status history Designated Endangered in April 1978. Status re-examined and confirmed in November 2000 and in April 2010.

Response Statements

  • Response Statement - Whooping Crane (2010-12-02)

    Canada is home to 100% of the naturally-occurring global breeding population of this species. Although never common, its population dipped to only 14 adult birds early in the last century, at which point the species was at the brink of extinction. Conservation efforts in Canada and the U.S. not only rescued the remnant population from extinction, but later resulted in population increases. To help ensure persistence of the species, efforts to establish wild flocks of captive-bred individuals outside Canada have been underway for several decades. Nevertheless, Canada’s breeding population is still very small and is confined to a limited breeding area and only one wintering location. This situation exposes it to catastrophic natural events (e.g. droughts, hurricanes) and a variety of ongoing anthropogenic threats (e.g. loss and degradation of coastal wetland habitats on the wintering grounds, oil spills in coastal areas, and collisions with power lines and structures during migration). Last, because of delayed sexual maturity and a naturally low annual reproductive output, this species has an inherently weak capacity to rebound from pressures that reduce survivorship or reproductive success.

Recovery Strategies

  • Recovery Strategy for the Whooping Crane (Grus americana) in Canada (2007-11-20)

    The Whooping Crane is a migratory bird protected under the Migratory Birds Convention Act, 1994 and is under the management jurisdiction of the federal government. The Whooping Crane was listed as endangered under the Species at Risk Act (SARA) in June 2003. SARA (Section 37) requires the competent minister to prepare recovery strategies for listed extirpated, endangered, or threatened species. The strategy meets SARA requirements in terms of content and process (Sections 39–41).

COSEWIC Annual Reports

  • COSEWIC Annual Report - 2010 (2010-09-03)

    Under Canada’s Species At Risk Act (SARA), the foremost function of COSEWIC is to “assess the status of each wildlife species considered by COSEWIC to be at risk and, as part of the assessment, identify existing and potential threats to the species”. During the past year, COSEWIC held two Wildlife Species Assessment Meetings and reviewed the status of 79 wildlife species (species, subspecies, populations). During the meeting of November 2009, COSEWIC assessed or reviewed the classification of the status of 28 wildlife species. COSEWIC assessed or reviewed the classification of an additional 51 wildlife species (species, subspecies and populations) during their April 2010 meeting. For species already found on Schedule 1 of SARA, the classification of 32 species was reviewed by COSEWIC and the status of the wildlife species was confirmed to be in the same category (extirpated - no longer found in the wild in Canada but occurring elsewhere, endangered, threatened or of special concern). The wildlife species assessment results for the 2009-2010 reporting period include the following: Extirpated: 6 Endangered: 39 Threatened: 16 Special Concern: 17 Data Deficient: 1 This report transmits to the Minister the status of 46 species newly classified as extirpated, endangered, threatened or of special concern, fulfilling COSEWIC’s obligations under SARA Section 24 and 25. A full detailed summary of the assessment for each species and the reason for the designation can be found in Appendix I of the attached report. Since its inception, COSEWIC has assessed 602 wildlife species in various risk categories, including 262 Endangered, 151 Threatened, 166 Special Concern and 23 Extirpated. In addition, 13 wildlife species have been assessed as Extinct. Also, to date, 46 wildlife species have been identified by COSEWIC as Data Deficient and 166 wildlife species were assessed as Not at Risk. This year has been a particularly productive year for COSEWIC’s Aboriginal Traditional Knowledge (ATK) Subcommittee. In April 2010 COSEWIC approved the Aboriginal Traditional Knowledge Process and Protocol Guidelines, providing clear and agreed principles for the gathering of Aboriginal Traditional Knowledge to carry out COSEWIC functions as required under Section 15(2) of SARA (See Appendix III of the attached report). We are grateful for the rich and enthusiastic contribution made by community elders and experts in helping the ATK Subcommittee prepare the ATK protocols.

Permits and Related Agreements

  • Explanation for issuing permit(#10915), persuant to the provisions of section 73 of SARA (2019-05-27)

    Capture and mark migratory birds
  • Explanation for issuing permit(#15-SK-SC007), persuant to the provisions of section 74 of SARA (2015-11-05)

    To conduct the corticosterone analysis on migratory bird species protected under the Migratory Birds Convention Act and the Species at Risk Act.
  • Explanation for issuing permit(#15-SK-SC007), persuant to the provisions of section 74 of SARA (2015-11-05)

    To conduct corticosterone analysis on migratory birds.
  • Explanation for issuing permit(#WB-2006-495), persuant to the provisions of section 74 of SARA (2006-05-16)

    This permit allows aerial surveys by fixed or rotary wing aircraft over the whooping crane summer range in and around Wood Buffalo National Park. Breeding pair surveys are May 1-30, hatching success surveys are June 5-20 and chick survival surveys are Aug. 8-20, 2006. The research also includes collection of unhatched eggs, scats and moulted feathers; measurement of nest ponds depth; collection of: water samples, potential food items of cranes, fecal pellets, prey remains, evidence of moulting, dead cranes and regurgitates. Crane vocalizations will be recorded on nesting territories by using playback to solicite reponses from territorial pairs. Live trapping of invertebrates, small mammals, amphibians, reptiles and minnows may take place on a limited basis. These activities have been conducted annually since 1966.
  • Explanation for issuing permit(#WB-2008-1719), persuant to the provisions of section 74 of SARA (2008-07-20)

    An aerial reconnaissance will be carried out using a fixed wing to locate large mixed groups of bison and this will be followed up with a ground-based count. The ground-based count will be facilitated by rotary wing aircraft to drop off the research team and to gently herd the bison towards them for counting. The purpose of the ground-based count is to classify a representative sample of WBNP bison herds by their age and gender in order to determine bull: cow ratios, cow: calf ratios, and recruitment for the park wood bison population.
  • Explanation for issuing permit(#WB-2010-4998), persuant to the provisions of section 74 of SARA (2010-05-01)

    This permit allows for a continuation of the Whooping Crane monitoring project in Wood Buffalo National Park. The project centers around conducting aerial surveys by fixed or rotary wing aircraft over the whooping crane summer range in the park and surrounding areas. Breeding pair surveys are May 1-30, hatching success surveys are June 5-20 and chick survival surveys are Aug. 8-20, 2006. Surveys have been conducted since 1966. Supplemental to the breeding ecology, the project also includes potential collection of unhatched eggs, scats and moulted feathers; measurement of nest ponds depth; collection of: water samples, potential food items of cranes, fecal pellets, prey remains, evidence of moulting, dead cranes and regurgitates. Crane vocalizations may be recorded on nesting territories by using playback to solicit responses from territorial pairs. Live trapping of invertebrates, small mammals, amphibians, reptiles and minnows may take place on a limited basis. New to the project this year is the banding of juvenile whooping cranes with a GPS transmitter. This will be a three-year project with the overall objective of gaining a better understanding of Whooping Crane ecology and behavior during the annual cycle with the use of GPS and radio-telemetry technology. Each summer, 10 chicks will be marked with the transmitters (additional chicks will receive colour leg bands only) in WBNP and 10 adults will be marked in Texas. From 1977-1988 134 whooping cranes chicks were banded in WBNP and the capture techniques will be the same.
  • Explanation for issuing permit(#WB-2012-11275), persuant to the provisions of section 74 of SARA (2012-05-17)

    This project involves aerial surveys by fixed or rotary wing aircraft over the whooping crane summer range in and around Wood Buffalo National Park. Annual breeding pair surveys are conducted from May 15-30, hatching success surveys from June 1 to 30, and chick survival surveys from July 15 to Aug 15. Ground based monitoring of crane breeding behaviour and habitat attributes may be conducted, e.g. recording of crane vocalizations or incubation behaviour using automated devices, or monitoring of habitat attributes such as pond depth. Collection of biological and environmental samples may be conducted, including: unhatched or imperiled eggs, scats and moulted feathers; measurement of pond depth and other habitat attributes; collection of water samples potential food items, fecal pellets, prey remains, dead cranes and regurgitates. Live trapping of invertebrates, small mammals, amphibians, reptiles and minnows may take place on a limited basis. These activities have been conducted by Environment Canada in WBNP since 1966. During whooping crane migration, monitoring of whooping cranes within Canada (Saskatchewan) will be used to confirm the status of marked birds and to determine habitat and site use.
  • Explanation for issuing permit(#WB-2012-12195), persuant to the provisions of section 74 of SARA (2012-07-24)

    One of several recovery strategies outlined in the WCRP calls for the protection and enhancement of the breeding, migration, and wintering habitat for the Aransas-Wood Buffalo population. 2012 is the last of a 3 year project banding juvenile whooping cranes and attaching satellite GPS transmitters and colour leg bands to determine causes of mortality, particularly on migration. Complete health checks will be conducted on the captured juveniles to gather baseline data on the health and genetics of this population as well. Up to 10 cranes per year will be captured on the breeding grounds in Canada to attach GPS Platform Transmitter Terminals (PTTs), a federal leg band, and a unique combination of coloured leg bands. In addition, we will attempt to capture 10 cranes per year on the wintering grounds in Texas to attach GPS PTTs. Therefore, we are planning to capture a total of 20 cranes per year (10 in Canada and 10 in Texas) for GPS PTT attachments. Additional cranes may be captured if time and conditions allow. Additional cranes captured and not designated to receive GPS PTTs will be outfitted with a federal aluminum leg band and a unique combination of coloured leg bands.
  • Explanation for issuing permit(#WB-2015-18376), persuant to the provisions of section 74 of SARA (2015-05-01)

    Aerial Surveys I. Breeding pair survey by helicopter between May 1-30 - Visit territories known to have nests in prior years; perform reconnaissance surveys in new areas that whooping cranes are expected to colonize; - Record coordinates of nests, including clutch size when possible; - Record locations of non-nesting territorial pairs; - Document colour leg bands of marked birds. II. Productivity survey by helicopter between late July 25 to August 15 - Return to territories that had nests or chicks during the breeding pair or hatching success survey; - Count (by age class) and record coordinates of family groups with and without chicks; - Count and record coordinates of nonbreeding cranes (including pioneering territorial pairs and other groups); - Document colour leg bands of marked birds. Surveys in aircraft are typically sufficient to cause adult birds to stand allowing nest contents and/or colour band combinations on marked birds to be identified using gyroscopic binoculars. Disturbance to the birds is minimal and occurs over a very short time; we have documented no adverse effects on crane nesting behaviour or success. Aerial surveys are normally conducted from an above-ground altitude of 300m; lower passes may be required to determine colour leg band combinations or nest contents. Surveys of this nature have been conducted since 1966, with observations of coloured leg bands beginning in 1977; to date, no adverse impact to the birds have been identified.
  • Explanation for issuing permit(#WB-2017-23857), persuant to the provisions of section 74 of SARA (2017-05-15)

    This permit allows for a continuation of the Whooping Crane monitoring project in Wood Buffalo National Park. The project centers around conducting aerial surveys by rotary wing aircraft over the whooping crane summer range in the park and surrounding areas. Breeding pair surveys are May 15 to 30 and chick survival surveys and capture/banding will be July 15 to August 15. Supplemental to the breeding ecology, the project also includes potential collection of unhatched eggs, scats, moulted feathers, fecal pellets and dead cranes. In addition to the surveys, the team will be banding 15-20 juvenile whooping cranes with a GPS transmitter annually for 3 years. This is being done to quantify, explain and mitigate the risk from oil sands mining and other industrial resource developments to whooping cranes. Techniques used for capture and banding will be the same as for work conducted by the Canadian Wildlife Service from 1977-1988, and from 2010-12, when 134 and 31 juveniles were banded at Wood Buffalo National Park, respectively. Cranes will be captured by hand before they are capable of flight at breeding sites.
  • Explanation for issuing permit(#WB08-1006), persuant to the provisions of section 74 of SARA (2009-02-16)

    The BBC is proposing to film Bison/wolf interactions in Wood Buffalo National Park for a new series, 'Our Frozen Planet'. The project is scheduled to begin in late February 2009 and end in Late March 2009. The filming will take place when snow is still on the ground, as it would feature as a sequence in the film about surviving winter. The project will involve a ground filming crew and air filming crew.
  • Explanation for issuing permit(#WB08-1007), persuant to the provisions of section 74 of SARA (2008-05-25)

    This permit allows whooping cranes to be photographed at their summer range and nesting area in Wood Buffalo National Park. Canadian Wildlife Service staff will fly with the photographer in late May to identify a suitable site and pair of Whooping cranes. The photographer will access the area with a helicopter and photograph the activities during breeding, nesting, and hatching. A blind will be set up near the nest, and some vegetation may be cut between the blind and the nest during set-up. The photographer will move the blind to within 50m, but will stop if the cranes appear agitated. A base camp will be set up 1km away for landing the helicopter and for sleeping and eating.

Consultation Documents

  • Consultation on Amending the List of Species under the Species at Risk Act: Terrestrial Species – November 2010 (2010-12-02)

    As part of its strategy for protecting wildlife species at risk, the Government of Canada proclaimed the Species at Risk Act (SARA) on June 5, 2003. Attached to the Act is Schedule 1, the list of the species that receive protection under SARA, also called the List of Wildlife Species at Risk. Please submit your comments by February 4, 2011 for species undergoing normal consultations and by February 4, 2012 for species undergoing extended consultations.

Residence Description

  • Description of Residence for Whooping Crane (Grus americana) in Canada (2005-06-22)

    The following is a description of residence for the whooping crane (Grus americana), created for the purposes of increasing public awareness and aiding enforcement of the above prohibition. As a migratory bird protected under the MBCA, the whooping crane is under federal jurisdiction and thus the residence prohibition is in effect on all lands where the species occurs. Whooping cranes are known to have one type of residence - the nest.

Critical Habitat Descriptions in the Canada Gazette

  • Description of critical habitat of the Whooping Crane in Wood Buffalo National Park of Canada (2008-11-29)

    The Whooping Crane (Grus americana) is a migratory bird protected under the Migratory Birds Convention Act, 1994 and is listed on Schedule 1 of the Species at Risk Act as an endangered species. In Canada, the Whooping Crane, breeds in and adjacent to Wood Buffalo National Park of Canada and winters in the United States. The Recovery Strategy for the Whooping Crane in Canada identifies critical habitat for the species within Wood Buffalo National Park of Canada.
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